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Feeding: Form, Function, and Evolution in Tetrapod Vertebrates. Edited by Kurt Schwenk. San Diego (California): Academic Press. $ xv + p; ill.; index.
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Pages Front Matter Pages Feeding in Jawless Fishes.

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Functional Morphology and Biomechanics of Feeding in Fishes. Nicholas J. Tetrapod Teeth: Diversity, Evolution, and Function. Anthony Herrel, James C. Brad R. Moon, David A. Penning, Marion Segall, Anthony Herrel. Paul M. Gignac, Haley D.

Turner, Gregory M. Christopher D.

Vertebrate

The lampreys may be marine as adults but spawn in fresh waters, where the larvae spend some time before metamorphosing to the adult. Some lampreys live entirely in fresh water and may change only slightly in habit as a result of metamorphosis. Without lateral fins, lampreys swim by undulations of the body and can control direction only for short distances. The living agnaths are predatory, the lampreys being well known for attacking salmonoid fishes. The lamprey attaches to its prey using its round, suctorial mouth, and it rasps a hole through the outer tissues using a tongue armed with keratinized teeth.

It suctions off bits of tissue, blood, and body fluids. The hagfishes feed somewhat similarly, but on a variety of prey—invertebrates worms and soft-bodied forms and dead fishes. The lampreys produce small eggs, which develop directly into larvae that burrow into the muddy bottom of the stream. With its mouth at the surface of the mud, the larva filter feeds until large enough to metamorphose and swim off as a small adult.

In contrast, the hagfishes produce relatively large encapsulated , yolky eggs up to two centimetres in length. When laid, these eggs attach to any available object by terminal hooks. The encased egg develops more or less directly into a miniature adult. The sharks , rays, and chimaerids are usually marine, but some sharks have entered fresh waters the Amazon or even live there permanently Lake Nicaragua. In size, sharks range from the whale shark , nearly 10 metres in length, to rather small species, three centimetres in length. They usually weigh 25 to kilograms 55 to pounds.

Sharks are predatory animals. Some large shark species basking and whale sharks filter feed on small crustaceans.

Feeding: form, function and evolution in tetrapod vertebrates | Kurt Schwenk

Herbivorous sharks are unknown. Most species occur in near-shore waters, but some range widely throughout the oceans. A few are found in deep water. A few sharks produce live young viviparous after internal fertilization.

Most sharks lay large yolky, encapsulated eggs with hooks for attachment. The young develop directly and begin life as miniature adults. In a few cases, the uterine wall secretes nutrients. The teleostome, or osteichthyian, fishes those having an internal bony skeleton can be divided into two groups: the subclasses Actinopterygii ray-finned fishes and Sarcopterygii lobe-finned fishes. The latter group includes the lungfishes , which live in marshes, ponds, or streams, and are frequent air breathers.

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They lay fairly large eggs, with a limited amount of yolk, that are enclosed in jelly coats like those of an amphibian. The eggs develop into small fishes that feed on live prey.


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The larvae of the African lungfish have external gills to supplement oxygen intake. Actinopterygian fishes are the common bony fishes of modern aquatic environments.

They range in size from fishes that are only millimetres in size to those two or more metres 6. Large species sturgeons are found in fresh waters several other large species are found in the Amazon as well as in marine environments. The diet may include plants, animals, and carrion. Most species are midwater swimmers, but many spend much time lying on the bottom. Tail, pectoral, and even dorsal fins are used in swimming.

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Kurt Schwenk

Reproduction in this group is by way of large numbers of small eggs, which produce small larvae or develop directly to the adult. Article Media. Info Print Print. Table Of Contents.