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2nd edition. Tom Williams, Edge Hill College of Higher Education, Ormskirk, Brian Smith, Edge Hill College of Higher Education, Ormskirk. Publisher.
Table of contents
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- A Solutions Manual for Operating Systems A Concept-Based Approach Second Edition
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Abdominal aortic aneurysm Quick Reference: an-your-ism A ballooning or dilatation of the aorta within the abdominal cavity. Advanced Reference: The aneurysm weakens the wall of the vessel and can result in rupture with potentially fatal consequences. As the diameter increases, the chances of rupture also increase. Men, usually over 60 years of age, are five times more likely than women to suffer this type of aneurysm. Also referred to as triple-A. Abdominal hysterectomy Quick Reference: Surgical removal of the uterus through a lower abdominal incision.
Abdominoperineal Quick Reference: Pertaining to the abdomen and perineum regions of anatomy. Advanced Reference: Includes the pelvic area, the female vulva and anus and the male anus and scrotum. The procedure synchronous combined abdominoperineal resection of the rectum involves excision of the lower colon, rectum and anus and is usually carried out by two surgeons working simultaneously. Abduction Quick Reference: The opposite of adduction. Away from the midline. Advanced Reference: The movement of a limb away from the midline. Abduction of the legs is therefore to spread them outwards.
Aberrant Quick Reference: A deviation or wandering from the normal or usual route. Advanced Reference: Can be applied to the heart when the electrical system does not follow the expected conduction pathway. Ablation Quick Reference: Indicates removal or destruction. Advanced Reference: Applies to body tissue, removal or destruction, usually by surgical means, the most common being ablation of the lining endometrium of the uterus which involves the application of heat thermal 1 Abnormal lie A balloon , electricity roller-ball , cautery, laser, freezing, or radiofrequency.
Similar methods are utilised for treatment of the prostate. Abnormal lie Quick Reference: Refers to when a baby is not in the normal head-down position in the uterus. Advanced Reference: This may involve feet-first or breech position. Abortifacient Quick Reference: Indicates causing abortion. Advanced Reference: An agent, drug, or chemical that causes abortion. Also termed abortient. Abortion Quick Reference: The loss of a pregnancy.
Removal of the fetus from the uterus. Advanced Reference: The premature exit of products of conception fetus, fetal membranes, placenta from the uterus. A spontaneous abortion is commonly termed a miscarriage. Abrasion Quick Reference: The wearing away of an area. Advanced Reference: Most commonly affects the skin, due to an abnormal mechanical process such as contact with a rough surface.
Abruption Quick Reference: A sudden breaking off or tearing apart. Advanced Reference: Placental abruption indicates the separation of the placenta from the normal positioning in the uterus leading to severe haemorrhage. Abscess Quick Reference: ab-ses A collection of pus as the result of localised infection. Advanced Reference: An abscess forms as the result of infection.
The area of infection becomes isolated from the healthy tissue and in time the dead white blood cells, bacteria and body fluids form pus. Absolute zero Quick Reference: symbol — 0 K.
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Temperature at which nothing could be colder. A component of the Kelvin temperature scale. Advanced Reference: At absolute zero no heat energy remains in a substance. It is the point at which molecules do not move zero point energy. Advanced Reference: ACE inhibitors inhibit angiotensin-converting enzyme, which is important in the regulation of blood pressure. Acetabulum Quick Reference: A cup-shaped cavity on the outer side of the hip innominate bone. Advanced Reference: Indicates the socket of the hip joint in which the head of femur moves articulates.
Acetylcholine Quick Reference: A neurotransmitter. Advanced Reference: Involved in the transmission of nerve impulses between nerve endings and the muscles and within the parasympathetic nervous 2 Acromegaly A system. It is broken down normally by cholinesterase. Muscle relaxant drugs act by competing with acetylcholine at the neuromuscular junction. Achalasia Quick Reference: ak-al-aysea Failure of a ring of muscle sphincter to relax.
Advanced Reference: Can affect the sphincter of the anus and oesophagus. Often treated through forced stretching dilatation. Achilles tendon Quick Reference: Tendon which runs from the calf muscle to the heel. Advanced Reference: The achilles is responsible for drawing the foot downwards, hinging at the ankle joint. It is a weak point in certain activities and can rupture during activity and consequently requires surgical repair.
Achondroplasia Quick Reference: ak-ondro-play-zea Failure of the arms and legs to grow to normal size. Advanced Reference: An inherited disorder that is mainly due to a defect in both bone and cartilage. Acid—Base balance Quick Reference: Indicates a balance in the production and secretion of acids and bases.
Advanced Reference: A balance provides a stable concentration of hydrogen ions in the body. Acidosis Quick Reference: Alteration of the acid—alkali balance towards acidity. Caused by an accumulation of acid or hydrogen ions or loss of bicarbonate. Advanced Reference: In health, the slight alkalinity is held constant by the balance of dissolved carbon dioxide acid and sodium bicarbonate alkali. Acidosis can be of either metabolic or respiratory nature.
Also referred to as acidaemia. Someone who is suffering acidosis is said to be acidotic.
Acoustic shock Quick Reference: Temporary or permanent disturbance of the functioning ear or its related nervous system. Advanced Reference: May be caused when a telephone user experiences sudden sharp rises in acoustic pressure, which can be a whistle, highpitched bleep or unexpected noise. The condition is different from noiseinduced hearing loss. Acquired immunity Quick Reference: Form of immunity that is not innate natural , i.
Advanced Reference: Immunity may be acquired by infection, vaccination active or by transfer of antibodies from an immune person passive. Acromegaly Quick Reference: State produced by oversecretion of the pituitary growth hormone, commonly as the result of a tumour of the gland. Advanced Reference: When it occurs in early life before the bones have stopped growing, the result is increased height or gigantism. After the bones have ceased to grow the patient develops a prominent forehead and cheekbones, a large jaw, hands and feet, a bent back combined with a hollow deep voice.
Treatment is directed towards restoring hormone levels to normal. Chemical compounds derived from acrylic acid. Advanced Reference: An ethylene derivative combined with a vinyl. Used in the manufacture of dental prostheses and intraocular lenses. As they are resistant to weakened acids, alkalis and bleaches, they are useful in the production of containers, etc.
Advanced Reference: A secretion of the pituitary gland which has the function of stimulating the cortex of the adrenal gland to secrete cortisol. Action potential Quick Reference: Wave of electrical discharge that travels along the membrane of a cell. Created by a depolarising current. Advanced Reference: Occurs when a neurone nerve cell sends information down an axon nerve fibre away from the cell body, carrying information within and between tissues. Actrapid Quick Reference: Proprietary fast-acting preparation of insulin. Advanced Reference: Used in the treatment of diabetes mellitus. Acute Quick Reference: The opposite to chronic.
Advanced Reference: Any process which has a sudden onset and runs a relatively short course. Acute abdomen Quick Reference: The sudden severe onset of abdominal pain. Advanced Reference: Refers to a potential medical emergency, indicating a problem with one of the major abdominal organs, e. Advanced Reference: The previously withdrawn blood is diluted and so increases the volume available for transfusion when required. Advanced Reference: Positioned anteriorly to the larynx and visible as a protrusion externally.
More prominent in men than women due to anatomical positioning. Adduction Quick Reference: The opposite of abduction. To adduct is to move a limb, for example, towards the midline of the body. Advanced Reference: The movement of a limb into toward the midline of the body. Adduction would thus bring the legs together.
Adenoids Quick Reference: Lymphatic glandular tissue present at the back of the nose. Advanced Reference: May become enlarged as the result of chronic infection and obstruct the free passage of air, leading to mouth breathing and snoring. Infection and enlargement are associated with chronic tonsillitis. Adenomyosis Quick Reference: aden-o-mio-sis Uterine thickening. Advanced Reference: Occurs when endometrial tissue, which normally lines the uterus, extends into the fibrous and muscular tissue of the uterus. Adenosine Quick Reference: Endogenous nucleoside.
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Drug used to treat supraventricular tachycardia SVT. Advanced Reference: Has a very short duration of action half-life of 8—10 seconds. Also used as an aid to diagnosis by helping to identify the nature of other rapid rhythms. Also known as vasopressin. Advanced Reference: Released by the pituitary gland and promotes water reabsorption in the kidney tubules. Those suffering diabetes insipidus lack ADH. Is now used in the form of vasopressin as an alternative to adrenaline epinephrine during cardiopulmonary resuscitation CPR.
Adhesion Quick Reference: The joining or sticking together of two surfaces that are normally separate. Advanced Reference: Adhesions can occur as a result of inflammation, which causes fibrous tissue to form. Peritonitis can cause adhesions, which may then lead to intestinal obstruction. Also often due to previous surgery. Adipometer Quick Reference: Instrument for measuring the thickness of skin folds. Advanced Reference: Used in the assessment of weight gain and loss.
Adipose tissue Quick Reference: The fatty tissue of the body. Advanced Reference: Serves as an energy source and insulating layer. Adiposis also termed liposis is an abnormal accumulation of fatty tissue in the body. The protective layer of fat surrounding the kidney is referred to as the adipose capsule.
A Solutions Manual for Operating Systems A Concept-Based Approach Second Edition
Adrenaline Quick Reference: A hormone secreted by the medulla of the adrenal gland. Advanced Reference: Also known by its pharmaceutical name, epinephrine. It has the actions of stimulating the heart, raising blood pressure, releasing glucose and increasing its metabolism, increasing muscular blood circulation, and relaxing air passages; hence its usefulness in shock and resuscitation settings. Adrenergic Quick Reference: Relates to nerve fibres that release noradrenaline. Advanced Reference: Noradrenaline is a chemical transmitter that stimulates muscles and glands, etc. Adult-onset diabetes Quick Reference: Also referred to as type 2 diabetes.
Advanced Reference: Usually manifests in middle and older age in conjunction with high blood glucose levels, high blood pressure, being 5 Advocate A overweight and lack of fitness, all leading to potential damage to the circulatory system. Advocate Quick Reference: One who acts on the behalf of another. Advanced Reference: Anyone who acts in support of the patient, especially if they are unable to do so themselves because of age, understanding, status of consciousness, etc.
Adventitia Quick Reference: ad-ven-tisha The outermost membranous covering of many anatomical structures. Advanced Reference: Example, the outer coat of an artery. Aeration Quick Reference: The exchange of carbon dioxide for oxygen by the blood in the lungs. Advanced Reference: The charging of a liquid with air or gas.
Aerobic Quick Reference: Indicates the requirement of oxygen for life and growth. Advanced Reference: An aerobe is any organism that requires oxygen in order to sustain life. The prefix aer o denotes air or gas. Aerosol Quick Reference: A fine mist or fog comprised of solid or liquid particles in a gas. Advanced Reference: Commonly refers to a pressurised container containing a propellant and a spray mechanism for dispersing a fine mist of fluid droplets.
Afferent Quick Reference: Towards the centre. Advanced Reference: Afferent vessels and structures run throughout the body, i. Agar Quick Reference: Culture medium. Advanced Reference: Composed of seaweed with broth or blood added as a nutrient. It resists the action of bacteria and therefore is used as a medium on which cultures can be grown. Not all micro-organisms will grow in such a way outside of the body, viruses for example require living tissue to survive.
Agglutination Quick Reference: The coming together of small particles in a solution to form clumps. Advanced Reference: In blood, it is brought about by the action of antibodies on antigens carried by the red blood cells or bacteria and is therefore utilised to identify blood groups during cross-matching X-matching. An agglutinin is an antibody that aggregates a particular antigen while an agglutinogen is any substance, when acting as an antigen, that stimulates production of an agglutinin. Aggregate Quick Reference: To gather together.
Advanced Reference: Indicates the total of a group of substances or components making up a mass or complex. Agonist Quick Reference: A contestant. Produces an action. Opposite of antagonist, which acts against and blocks an action. A drug that can combine with a receptor on a cell to produce a physiologic reaction. Airway Quick Reference: Generic term for a wide range of oropharyngeal or nasopharyngeal adjuncts designed to maintain a clear airway. Advanced Reference: Guedel is the most recognisable oral version, but there are numerous variations in design that include inflatable balloon cuffs at the distal tip, side-arms for supplemental oxygen, while the not-so-popular nasal version is available in a variety of sizes and materials.
The LMA has undoubtedly reduced the use of oral and nasal airway usage in recent years. Airway classification Quick Reference: Classification used to assess potential for airway ventilation and intubation and visualisation of the related structures. Advanced Reference: There are a number of related classifications i.
Usually assessed with the patient sitting and with their head in the neutral position. The thyromental distance system bases intubation potential on the measurement from the thyroid notch to the tip of the jaw, while the sternomental distance uses a measurement from the sternum to the tip of the mandible both with head extended. A measurement varying outside of an agreed norm is said to be an indication of difficult intubation. Alberti Quick Reference: A protocol utilised in the treatment of diabetes.
Said to be a fail-safe system that ensures that variations in infusion rate do not produce an imbalance of glucose and insulin, which could lead to hypokalaemia. Albumin Quick Reference: A plasma protein. Albuminuria Quick Reference: The presence of serum albumin, globulin and other proteins in the urine.
Advanced Reference: May be due to kidney disease, nephritis and inflammation of the lower urinary tract as well as heart disease, fevers, severe anaemia and the administration of certain drugs and poisons or even following strenuous exercise. Used mainly in the healthcare setting as cleaning, antiseptic and disinfecting agents. Advanced Reference: Those relevant to medicine are methyl wood alcohol — methanol and ethyl alcohol ethanol. Ethyl alcohol when free of water and impurities is called absolute alcohol chemical formula C2H5OH.
Advanced Reference: Prior to the standardisation of active scavenging systems in theatres, the Aldasorber passive system was used. It is comprised of a scavenging valve connected by tubing to a free-standing container of activated charcoal which absorbs halothane from expired gases. Disposal and exhaustion involved weighing the container and comparing this with the fresh weight stated on the packaging.
Aldehyde Quick Reference: Colourless volatile fluid with a suffocating smell. Advanced Reference: Obtained by oxidation of alcohol, during which the flammable liquid acetaldehyde is produced. Available in theatres as formaldehyde and as a sterilising agent, glutaraldehyde.
Aldosterone Quick Reference: Hormone released by the renal cortex. Advanced Reference: Responsible for the regulation of sodium levels, which it does by reabsorption in the kidney. In order to maintain an electrolyte balance, the hormone also plays a part in potassium excretion. Alfentanil Quick Reference: Narcotic analgesic, Rapifen. Also used as an infusion during prolonged procedures. Algorithm Quick Reference: A set of rules, instructions or guidelines. Advanced Reference: Allows for a solution or problem to be solved or achieved by breaking it down into simpler stages, without fully understanding the entire process.
An example being cardiopulmonary resuscitation CPR , an especially advanced technique which utilises a step-by-step approach. Alimentary Quick Reference: Refers to the alimentary canal or digestive tract. Advanced Reference: Is composed of the mouth, pharynx, oesophagus, stomach and intestine. Alkali Quick Reference: Substance which neutralises acid to produce a salt.
Advanced Reference: Most common alkalis are oxides, hydroxides or carbonates and bicarbonates. Examples are sodium bicarbonate, calcium carbonate, magnesium carbonate, magnesium trisilicate and aluminium hydroxide. Alkalis turn litmus blue. Alkalosis is an increase in body alkali reserve, i. Common causes are carbonic acid deficit or an excessive level of bicarbonate. Allergy Quick Reference: Hypersensitivity to various substances allergens , e. Advanced Reference: It is due to an antigen—antibody reaction.
Hay fever and asthma are examples of an allergic reaction. An allergen is a substance that causes the allergic reaction, and can be ingested, inhaled, injected or simply have skin contact. Advanced Reference: Synthetic non-depolariser with a duration of 20—30 mins. Is a preparation of alcuronium chloride. Allogeneic Quick Reference: Refers to transplanted tissue.
Advanced Reference: Allograft indicated tissue transplanted from one person to another. Allograft Quick Reference: Type of graft or transplant. Advanced Reference: Indicates between different species.
Alloimmunity Quick Reference: An immune response. Advanced Reference: A condition in which the body gains immunity from another individual of the same species against its own cells. As occurs after: blood or plasma transfusion, allograft, and in the fetus after maternal antibodies have passed through the placenta into the fetus. Alloy Quick Reference: Combination of metals. Advanced Reference: A mixture of two or more metals or substances with metallic properties.
Those with a medical application include amalgam mercury and silver used in tooth fillings, and many others used in the manufacture of implants. Alpha-linolenic acid Quick Reference: A fatty acid found in fish and seeds. Chemical formula — C18H30O2. Advanced Reference: Used by the body in the formation of prostaglandins.
Advanced Reference: Mainly affects those in middle and old age leading to dementia, resulting in progressive memory loss, impaired thinking and disorientation as well as character changes. Cause is unknown but there is found to be a deterioration in brain neurones and evidence of amyloid plaque deposits. Amalgam Quick Reference: A group of alloys containing mercury.
Advanced Reference: Used in dentistry for tooth fillings. Made by mixing a silver—tin alloy with mercury. Ambient Quick Reference: Surrounding, encompassing. Advanced Reference: Relates to ambient temperature, ambient air pressure, the surrounding temperature and air pressure. A self-inflating bag. Advanced Reference: Used as a general term to indicate an airway management device with a one-way valve, used mainly during CPR. The design is now more readily termed bag-valve-mask BVM.
Ambulatory Quick Reference: Walking, able to walk. Advanced Reference: Day-case surgical units are also referred to as ambulatory units. Indicates where patients do not require an overnight stay in hospital. Amenorrhoea Quick Reference: Absence of menstruation. Advanced Reference: Also referred to as menostasis. Amides Quick Reference: Organic compound derived from ammonia. Advanced Reference: Are formed when amino acids react to form proteins. Amine Quick Reference: Organic compound containing nitrogen. Advanced Reference: Formed by ammonia replacing hydrogen atoms.
Amino acids Quick Reference: Organic compound found in proteins. Advanced Reference: There are 20 different amino acids which can formulate into numerous arrangements making a polypeptide chain, and are termed the building blocks. Aminophylline Quick Reference: Bronchodilator. Advanced Reference: Used to treat moderate forms of asthma and pulmonary oedema.
Amiodarone Quick Reference: Antiarrhythmic drug. Now available as an alternative to lignocaine. Advanced Reference: Is irritant to the lungs leading to oedema and bronchitis and can cause burns. Amnesia Quick Reference: Loss of memory. Advanced Reference: Caused usually by injury or emotional trauma. There is a specific form of memory loss that affects some individuals who have been artificially ventilated and sedated for a lengthy period. Amniocentesis Quick Reference: Withdrawal of amniotic fluid from a pregnant uterus for diagnostic purposes.
Advanced Reference: Percutaneous transabdominal puncture of the uterus with a hollow needle in order to withdraw amniotic fluid from the sac surrounding the fetus. Amniotic Quick Reference: Refers to amniotic fluid present in the pregnant uterus. Advanced Reference: The amnion is a membranous bag containing the amniotic fluid, which is a watery liquid in which the baby floats until birth. Advanced Reference: Used in the treatment of systemic bacterial infections and those of the upper respiratory tract, ear, nose and throat, as well as the urogenital system.
It is a preparation of the broad-spectrum penicillin, amoxicillin. Amp Quick Reference: Ampere. Advanced Reference: Unit used for the measurement of electrical current. Amphetamine Quick Reference: am-fet-amean Agent that has a stimulant effect on both the central and peripheral nervous systems. Advanced Reference: Used in the treatment of narcolepsy, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and at one time as an anorexiant in the treatment of obesity.
Ampicillin Quick Reference: Broad-spectrum antibiotic. Advanced Reference: Similar in action to tetracyclines. Used in the treatment of urogenital tract, upper respiratory and ear infections. Many bacteria have now developed a resistance to this drug. Amplitude Quick Reference: Width, breadth, range. Advanced Reference: Maximum extent of vibration or oscillation from a position of equilibrium.
The amplitude in relation to an ECG trace implies the height and strength of the signal. Ampoule Quick Reference: Small glass or plastic container for drugs. Also called a vial. Advanced Reference: Designed to contain a single dose of a drug or solution, as opposed to a multi-dose vial. Advanced Reference: Anatomical term used to designate an almond-shaped structure. An almond-shaped mass of grey matter inside each cerebral hemisphere.
Amylase Quick Reference: An enzyme that breaks down starch and glycogen. Advanced Reference: Present in the pancreatic juices and saliva, amylase acts as a catalyst in the hydrolysis of starch to sugar. Amyl nitrite Quick Reference: A volatile flammable liquid with a pungent odour. Advanced Reference: It is administered by inhalation in the treatment of cyanide poisoning where it produces methaemoglobin when it binds with the cyanide. Also used in cardiac diagnostic tests.
Used as a drug of abuse to produce euphoria and sexual stimulation. Anaemia Quick Reference: Condition in which there is an insufficient level of oxygen-carrying capacity in the blood. Advanced Reference: An aerobic micro-organism is one that can survive in the absence of oxygen, e. Advanced Reference: Term which is used to indicate both general and local anaesthesia and also used interchangeably with analgesia without pain.
Anaesthesia is commonly understood to indicate being put to sleep in order to undergo surgery. Analgesia Quick Reference: Indicates without pain. Advanced Reference: Often used interchangeably with anaesthesia.
Analgesia can be induced using drugs analgesics , cold and electrical stimulation. Anaphylaxis Quick Reference: anna-fil-axis A category of shock caused by exposure to a foreign protein allergen. Advanced Reference: An acute systemic allergic reaction which occurs when a person has become sensitised to a substance or allergen and is again exposed to it. Symptoms include tachycardia, vasodilatation, hypotension, urticaria, sweating, bronchial swelling oedema , dyspnoea.
Anaphylactoid reactions, although similar, are not caused by an allergic reaction but instead by a non-immunological trigger. This can involve X-ray contrast media, certain IV fluids and even some morphine-based preparations. Anastomosis Quick Reference: The joining of two structures or ends. Advanced Reference: In relation to surgery, anastomosis is the joining of two ends, usually following resection, i.
Anatomical snuff box Quick Reference: Small hollow or depression on the lateral aspect of the wrist. Advanced Reference: So-called as it is the place where snuff was traditionally placed prior to sniffing it into the nose. The area is formed by tendons reaching towards the thumb. Androgen Quick Reference: Hormone responsible for masculinisation. Advanced Reference: Is in fact one of a group of steroid hormones that includes testosterone and androsterone that stimulate male sexual development, which involves the sex organs and male secondary sexual characteristics, i.
The main source for these is the testis. Synthetic versions are used to treat a number of conditions including delayed puberty. Advanced Reference: Used to describe a device that is in contrast to one that utilises or contains fluid, e. Aneurysm Quick Reference: an-your-ism Localised dilatation of an artery, sometimes forming a sac. Advanced Reference: May be congenital, due to inflammation, or caused by trauma.
The pressure of blood causes the artery to distend as it weakens and becomes prone to rupture. Common sites are the abdominal aorta and carotid artery. There are a number of variations including dissecting aneurysm, in which a tear occurs in the lining and blood makes its way between the layers of the vessel, forcing them apart. Also, saccular aneurysm, which involves dilatation of only a part of the arterial circumference.
Treatment for all usually involves surgery for repair, or grafting. Angina pectoris Quick Reference: Severe chest pain, felt behind the pectoral muscle. Advanced Reference: Pectoris indicates the area of the chest around the pectoral muscles. The pain is due to narrowing or occlusion, usually by spasm, of the main arteries coronary supplying the heart. This leads to a lack of oxygen to the heart muscle itself, hence demand outstrips supply. It can be relieved by vasodilator drugs such as glyceryl trinitrate nitroglycerine, GTN , which can be administered by injection, oral tablet or be absorbed from under the tongue sublingual , as well as topically via a skin patch dermally.
Angiogenesis Quick Reference: The growth and formation of new blood vessels, revascularisation. Advanced Reference: Used commonly in relation to the development of tumours. Also referred to as angiopoietic and vasculogenic. Angiography Quick Reference: X-ray of the cerebral vascular tree.
Advanced Reference: Involves imaging following the injection of a radioopaque medium into a main neck artery. Often termed with arteriography, which is X-ray of an artery. Angioplasty Quick Reference: Actually indicates surgical reconstruction of a blood vessel but is most commonly referred to as a procedure to restore blood flow through an artery. Advanced Reference: Balloon angioplasty involves dilatation of a constricted or blocked artery. In some procedures a stent is carried on the catheter and fixed in place to keep the vessel open following dilatation.
There are a number of similar procedures, all carried out under X-ray control with the catheters being introduced via a cutaneous route and under local anaesthetic, i. Angioscopy Quick Reference: Use of an angioscope to visualise the lumen of blood vessels. Advanced Reference: Also the visualisation of capillary blood vessels with a special microscope angioscope. Angiospasm Quick Reference: Spasm occurring in a blood vessel. Advanced Reference: Mainly applies to arteries, with the spasm causing cramp in the muscles.
Treatment can be with antispasmodic drugs or sympathectomy in unresponsive cases. Anion Quick Reference: A negatively charged ion. Advanced Reference: An ion is an electrolysed solution that migrates to the anode. The anode is the positive pole; the cathode, the negative pole. Ankylosing spondylitis Quick Reference: ankal-osing Type of arthritis which causes deformity and stiffness in joints. Advanced Reference: The resultant inflammation affects the joint capsule as well as the attached ligaments and tendons.
If occurring in the area of the neck and spine, it can cause severe deformity kyphosis which may lead to airway management problems during anaesthesia. Anode Quick Reference: Positive node. Advanced Reference: In an electrochemical cell, the electrode at which oxidation occurs, i. The cathode is the negative node, i. Anodised Quick Reference: Metal coated with a very thin layer of another metal. Advanced Reference: Usually applied by electrolysis, common with surgical instruments to provide a non-glare finish.
Advanced Reference: The correct term is anorexia nervosa. Symptoms include the sufferer refusing to eat or eating only under protest, often followed by them inducing vomiting to get rid of the food consumed. Leads to nutritional deficiency and hormonal imbalance. Occurs mainly in females between the ages of 14 and Anorexiant Quick Reference: An appetite suppressant. Advanced Reference: Also referred to as an anorectic.
Amphetamines are foremost amongst this group and cause the release of noradrenaline. Anosmia Quick Reference: Impaired or complete loss of sense of smell. Advanced Reference: Can be due to a simple cold, hayfever, medication as well as nasal polyps or even brain injury. Advanced Reference: In relation to the perioperative period, antacids are used for patients who are at risk of regurgitation, possibly due to hiatus hernia, and gastroesophageal reflux, they are given preoperatively.
Sodium citrate is common for Caesarean section patients, while sodium bicarbonate, aluminium hydroxide and magnesium trisilicate are further examples of antacids. Antagonist Quick Reference: An opposite or opposing action. Advanced Reference: Examples would be the muscles, biceps and triceps: one relaxes as the other contracts.
With reference to drugs, antagonist indicates one which blocks or reverses the action of another. Antecubital fossa Quick Reference: Inside area of the elbow. Advanced Reference: Area on the inside of the elbow where access for cannulation is regularly made via the basilic and cephalic veins. Anteflexion Quick Reference: Bending forward. Advanced Reference: The uterus is a fine example of an organ that bends forward from its fixed point. Antepartum Quick Reference: Before childbirth. Advanced Reference: Actually indicates the three-month period prior to giving birth.
Anterior Quick Reference: Indicates the front. Opposite of posterior. Advanced Reference: Foremost, front surface of. Ventral is also used to indicate the front surface of the body. Anteverted Quick Reference: Tilting forward. Advanced Reference: Indicates the forward tilting of an organ, as with the uterus, which has a normal position of being tilted toward the front.
Anthropometry Quick Reference: Science which deals with measurements of the human body. Advanced Reference: Includes weight, proportions and overall size. Antiarrhythmic Quick Reference: anti-a-rith-mik Range of drugs used to regulate the heartbeat. Advanced Reference: As there are a number of ways in which the heartbeat can become irregular, the range of drugs to treat this is broad. Irregularities include atrial and ventricular tachycardia, atrial flutter and fibrillation as well as the changes that may follow a heart attack.
Common drugs in this category are digoxin, verapamil, lignocaine and amiodarone. Antibacterials Quick Reference: Drugs and substances that destroy bacteria but may have less effect on other micro-organisms. Advanced Reference: The major drug groups involved are antibiotics, although sulphonamides are sometimes categorised as such. They have 15 A Antibiotic specific uses or are administered in combination with antibiotics, especially when resistant strains or sensitivity is involved. Antibiotic Quick Reference: A class of drugs used to treat infection bacterial.
Advanced Reference: Collective name for a class of substances produced mainly from living organisms and are capable of destroying or hindering the growth of pathogenic organisms. The term is also used to cover similar synthetic compounds. Antibiosis is the action of one type of microbe opposing the growth of another antagonism. Antibody Quick Reference: Against the body. Protein that is synthesised in response to a particular antigen.
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Advanced Reference: Specific substances produced in the blood as a reaction to an antigen foreign substance and which circulate in the plasma ready to attack specific antigens. Anticancer Quick Reference: Drugs and substances that act against cancer, i. Inevitably, this means that normal cell production and proliferation are also affected and they are therefore prone to producing side-effects. Anticholinergic Quick Reference: Drugs that inhibit the action, release or production of acetylcholine. They block the passage of impulses in the parasympathetic nervous system.
Advanced Reference: Acetylcholine plays an important role in the functioning of the nervous system, tending to relax smooth muscle. Anticholinergics inhibit the cholinergic enzyme from breaking down acetylcholine, so increasing its level and duration of action. Atropine is an example of an acetylcholine antagonist. Anticholinesterases Quick Reference: anti-coal-in-es-terase Chemical that inhibits the cholinesterase enzyme from breaking down acetylcholine.
Advanced Reference: This action therefore increases both the level and duration of action of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine. They are used to increase neuromuscular transmission in such conditions as myasthenia gravis. Also referred to as acetylcholinesterase inhibitor. Anticoagulant Quick Reference: Substance which prevents or reduces the formation of a clot in the blood.
Advanced Reference: The two most popular are the naturally occurring heparin and the synthetically produced warfarin name taken from Wisconsin Alumni Research Foundation. Antidote Quick Reference: Substance given to counteract or neutralise the effects of a poison, for example. Antiemetic Quick Reference: Drug administered to prevent nausea and vomiting. Advanced Reference: These drugs work by either directly suppressing the vomiting centre in the brain or by stimulating stomach emptying.
Antigen Quick Reference: A substance treated as an alien or foreign substance within the body. Advanced Reference: Any substance which invokes the action of an antibody. Something that has the properties of an antigen is said to be antigenic. Antihaemorrhagic Quick Reference: An agent that prevents or stops haemorrhage. Advanced Reference: May be a drug for injection, e. Antihistamine Quick Reference: Drug which counteracts the effects of histamine.
Advanced Reference: Antihistamines work by blocking the receptors for histamine. Used in the treatment of drug allergies, allergic and itching rashes and urticaria. Antimuscarinics Quick Reference: Group of drugs formerly termed anticholinergics. Advanced Reference: They reduce intestinal motility and gastric secretion and are also used to treat some forms of dyspepsia. Antioxidant Quick Reference: Any substance that delays or prevents oxidation.
Advanced Reference: Commonly used in relation to health to indicate any natural or synthetic substances that counteract the action of free radicals reactive by-products of normal cell activity in the body, such as vitamins C, E, A. Antiplatelet Quick Reference: Refers to drugs that reduce platelet aggregation, e. Advanced Reference: This group of drugs also inhibits thrombus formation, e. Antisepsis Quick Reference: The elimination of bacteria, fungus and viruses. Advanced Reference: Includes all chemical and physical methods utilised to destroy micro-organisms that cause disease.
Advanced Reference: Used interchangeably but wrongly with disinfectant. One difference is that antiseptics can be safely applied to the body tissues, whereas disinfectants generally cannot or are not. Antiseptics are used primarily to prevent infection. Advanced Reference: A method of passing on passive immunity; antiserum is obtained from an animal that has been immunised either by injection of an antigen or by infection with micro-organisms containing the antigen. Also referred to as antisera, antitoxin.
Antisialagogues Quick Reference: Used to dry salivary secretions. Advanced Reference: Drugs in this group, atropine being the most common, have the action of drying both salivary and bronchial secretions. Useful as part of a premedication protocol. Antispasmodic Quick Reference: Drug which counteracts the spasm in hollow organs. Advanced Reference: They generally act on the smooth muscle of the gastrointestinal tract and ureters. Antitoxin Quick Reference: Antibody formed in the blood in response to the presence of a toxin.
Advanced Reference: Serum containing antitoxin used to prevent or treat diseases such as tetanus. Toxins may originate from animals, plants or bacteria. Antrum Quick Reference: A cavity or chamber. Advanced Reference: One that is nearly closed and usually surrounded by bone. Anuria Quick Reference: Condition in which no urine is produced. Ischuria indicates retention or suppression of the urine.
Anus Quick Reference: End of the alimentary tract. Advanced Reference: The position where the rectum opens to the exterior. It is surrounded by two sphincters. Anxiolytic Quick Reference: Anti-anxiety. Drugs used in the treatment of anxiety.
Faculty of Medicine
Advanced Reference: Drugs which produce sedation. Tranquillisers are commonly included in this category. Benzodiazepines are an example. AO system Quick Reference: Range of systems and instruments associated mainly with orthopaedic surgery. Founded and developed by a group of Swiss orthopaedic and general surgeons with the aim of improving methods of fracture treatment. Aorta Quick Reference: Main artery of the body.
Advanced Reference: Beginning in the chest at the left ventricle, curves up, over and then down to pass through the diaphragm into the abdominal 18 Aphasia A cavity then eventually dividing into the left and right common iliac arteries. During its course it gives off many branches, e.
Aortic regurgitation Quick Reference: Involves the retrograde flow of blood from the aorta to the left ventricle LV during diastole. Advanced Reference: Eventually leads to LV dilatation and hypertrophy and a low cardiac output. Causes include ischaemic heart disease IHD , endocarditis and rheumatic fever, or may be congenital.
Aortic valve Quick Reference: Heart valve. Advanced Reference: Positioned between the left ventricle and entrance to the aorta. Also termed the semilunar valve, it consists of three flaps which help to maintain unidirectional blood flow. Aortocaval compression Quick Reference: Indicates obstruction to flow through the vessels due to compression by other organs, the fetus in pregnancy or a tumour. Also referred to as aortocaval occlusion. Advanced Reference: Most commonly associated with late pregnancy when the vena cava and sometimes the aorta are compressed between the pregnant uterus and vertebral column, leading to reduced venous return and impaired cardiac output.
Hence the reason for tipping the patient to the left or positioning in full left lateral when attending for Caesarean section.
https://www.hiphopenation.com/mu-plugins/diego/dating-website-for-foodies.php Aperient Quick Reference: A mild oral laxative. Advanced Reference: May be a medicine or food. An alternative to enema and suppository. Aperture Quick Reference: An opening or hole. Advanced Reference: May be present in an object or anatomical structure. Apex Quick Reference: The summit, top or peak of anything cone shaped. Advanced Reference: Used with reference to the apex beat of the heart, located or felt at the level of the fifth intercostal space in the midclavicular line. Apgar scale Quick Reference: A scoring system used to assess the newborn.
Each is awarded a value of 0, 1, 2 and the total score indicates condition, with the maximum being 10 and below 9 suggesting that the baby requires attention; a score of less than 6 indicates that resuscitation is needed. Taken at 1- and 5-min intervals after birth. Aphakia Quick Reference: Absence of the lens of the eye. Advanced Reference: Is the state of the eye after a cataract has been removed. Aphasia Quick Reference: Loss of power of speech, reading and writing.
Advanced Reference: Caused by damage to the parts of the brain concerned with these functions. Advanced Reference: A congenital absence of an organ or tissues. Can also indicate the cessation of normal regenerative processes in organs and tissues. Apnoea Quick Reference: Cessation of breathing.
Advanced Reference: Caused by a number of factors including reduced central respiratory drive due to drugs, peripheral nerve lesious and respiratory muscle weakness. Apoptosis Quick Reference: Pertaining to a pattern of cell death. Disintegration of cells. Advanced Reference: A natural process of self-destruction in certain cells. Also called programmed cell death PCD. Appendicectomy Quick Reference: Surgical removal of the appendix.
Advanced Reference: Identification of the appendix is at the ileo-caecal junction, i. A Grid-Iron is the term used to indicate the lie of the muscles that have to be divided and a purse-string suture technique is used to close the location from where the appendix is removed. Apposition Quick Reference: Two bodily structures being in close contact.
Advanced Reference: Making a fist brings the fingers together. Approximate Quick Reference: To bring together; into apposition. Advanced Reference: Used commonly in relation to wound edges being brought together for suturing, etc. Apronectomy Quick Reference: A plastic surgery procedure carried out to remove abdominal tissue.
Also termed abdominoplasty. Aprotinin Quick Reference: An antifibrinolytic drug. Advanced Reference: An antihaemorrhagic used to reduce perioperative blood loss during such procedures as cardiopulmonary bypass. Arachnoid Quick Reference: One of the membranes covering the brain. Advanced Reference: Proprietary form of metaraminol. Used to raise blood pressure or in conditions of severe shock. Advanced Reference: Serious condition involving the lungs.
It has a high mortality rate, and is a form of respiratory failure due to a number of causes. Advanced Reference: Positioned and usually fixed to the side of the operating table at shoulder level as a support when the arm is at an angle to the table. There are a number of inherent hazards involved in the utilisation of arm boards: 1. The angle of the board must not exceed 90o as this could cause brachial plexus injury. The board can drop below the table level causing a drag on the shoulder joint and associated nerves.
Correct less than 90 degree angle Incorrect more than 90 degree angle Fig. Arms on arm board in supine position 21 A Arm support 3. Having both arms out on boards simultaneously also creates the potential for injury if necessary precautions are not identified. There are designs of board available for both attaching to the table and sliding under the table mattress. Advanced Reference: Numerous designs are available but all are a variation on an L-shape. Intended to fit under the mattress with the upper section holding the arms, whether positioned at the side or folded across the chest.
Aromatase inhibitors Quick Reference: A group of drugs used to stop the natural production of oestrogen. Advanced Reference: They are used in the treatment of breast cancer, sometimes in conjunction with alternative medications. Examples are anastrozole, exemestane, letrozole.
Arrhythmia Quick Reference: a-rith-me-a Any irregularity in the rhythm of the heartbeat. Advanced Reference: Actually indicates no rhythm, the more accurate term is dysrhythmia. Drugs used to treat arrhythmias are referred to as antiarrhythmics. Lignocaine and amiodarone are commonly used in the treatment of tachyarrhythmias. Artefact Quick Reference: Artificially made, produced.
Arteriosclerosis Quick Reference: Hardening of the arteries. Advanced Reference: Loss of elasticity of the arterial walls due to thickening and calcification. Leads to a raised blood pressure. Artery forceps Quick Reference: An instrument for holding bleeding vessels securely during surgery. Advanced Reference: All artery forceps have serrate jaws designed to hold bleeding vessels securely. Some have sharp teeth at the ends of the jaws which provide a stronger grip on tougher tissues. They come in many sizes and shapes, with some of the most common being Mosquito, Halstead, Spencer Wells, Kelly, Kocher.
Also referred to as a clamp. Mechanical ventilation involves the careful interplay of physiology, pathology, physics and technology. Providing a broad and in-depth coverage of key topics, this text lays out the principles and practicalities of mechanical ventilation, placing these concepts into clinical context with practical examples. Physiological, pathological and physical principles are explained without assumption of specialist knowledge, and full colour diagrams aid understanding of more complex material.
An extensive glossary explains complex terms and allows the cross-referencing of multiple terms. There are few situations more challenging and stressful than airway compromise in acutely ill patients. This book describes the principles of emergency airway management outside the operating theatre, systematically leading the reader through the components of successful practice. Critical care presents more complex clinical data than any other area of medicine. This book will guide clinicians from all disciplines in the management of cardiothoracic patients providing the key knowledge in a concise and accessible manner.
It demystifies all aspects of the unit, including the complex equipment and additional diagnostic tools and covers all peripheral but important topics, from admission to discharge, legal and ethical issues to unit organization and specific clinical procedures. This book provides an overview of the multiple techniques used in the management of pain in interventional radiology suites.
Topics include techniques for the treatment and prevention of pain caused by interventional procedures, as well as minimally invasive techniques used to treat patients with chronic pain symptoms. Approximately half of the book is dedicated to the diagnosis and treatment of spinal pain; other chapters focus on intraprocedural and post-procedural pain management, embolization and ablation techniques used to treat patients with uncontrollable pain, and alternative treatments for pain relief.
Cross Queen Alexandra Hospital. The FRCA examination relies in part on a sound understanding of the basic science behind anaesthetic practice. It is important to be able to describe these principles clearly, particularly in the viva section of the examination. This book provides all the important graphs, definitions and equations which may be covered in the examination, together with clear and concise explanations of how to present them to the examiner and why they are important. Particular attention is paid to teaching the reader how to draw the graphs, which is an aspect of the examination that can be overlooked, but if done well can create a much better impression in the viva situation.
The new edition incorporates this new emphasis, giving candidates an insight into the way the viva works and offering general guidance on exam technique. Designed for candidates sitting the primary FRCA examination, this book brings together exam questions from recent years and structures them into six practice papers. The format of 90 questions per paper echoes the exam itself. Following each paper a scoring chart and detailed explanations of answers are provided. For more information visit:.
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Books for Anesthesia and Intensive Care For further information visit www. Searl and Sameena T. Ahmed Second edition Both from Freeman Hospital, Newcastle University of Western Ontario This comprehensive volume includes discussion of some of the more contentious issues in the management of thoracic patients, as well as the rapid evolution of new techniques such as lung-assist devices, modes of ventilation and VAT surgery. Edited by Ian McConachie Providing practical assistance to those commencing careers in thoracic anesthesia, a clear, three-section layout — Pre-operative, Operative and Post-operative Management — makes it quick and easy to navigate.
April pp 30 halftones 32 tables HB c. April pp 25 tables PB c. Associate Editor: Robert Jones This practical text explains the benefits of ultrasound for: Alexandra Hospital, Redditch Ted Lin Fundamentals of Anaesthesia is the gold standard text for the Primary FRCA, encapsulating the basic principles of modern anaesthesia in one accessible volume.
Peck Royal Hampshire County Hospital, Winchester Sue Hill Southampton University Hospital The third edition of this market-leading reference book has been thoroughly updated to include all new drugs available to the anaesthetist and intensive care specialist. Jerry Nolan Providing a broad and in-depth coverage of key topics, this text lays out the principles and practicalities of mechanical ventilation, placing these concepts into clinical context with practical examples. Southampton University Hospitals Trust Royal United Hospital, Bath Mike Clancy Physiological, pathological and physical principles are explained without assumption of specialist knowledge, and full colour diagrams aid understanding of more complex material.